Ephesus (Ancient Greek Ἔφεσος; Turkish Efes) was an ancient Greek city on the west coast of Anatolia, in the region known as Ionia during the period known as Classical Greece. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League.
The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, which was destroyed by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom in 401 AD. The emperor Constantine Irebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614. The importance of the city as a commercial centre declined as the harbor slowly filled with silt from the river Cayster (Küçük Menderes).
Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia cited in the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of John might have been written here. It is also the site of a large gladiator graveyard.
Today's archaeological site lies 3 kilometers south of the Selçuk district of İzmir Province, Turkey. The ruins of Ephesus are a favorite international and local tourist attraction, partly owing to their easy accessibility from Adnan Menderes Airport and via the port of Kuşadası.
Kemeraltı is a historical market (bazaar) district of İzmir, Turkey. It was originally formed around the street surrounding the shallow inner bay of the city, which was filled in due course during the 17th century, availing the bazaar to be extended to a wider area. The street, that traces a wide curve and called today as Anafartalar Street (Caddesi), and known historically as the Street of the Mevlevis, in reference to the presence of a "dergah" (a building designed for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood) situated by the street, constitutes the principal axis of Kemeraltı. The district covers a vast area extending from the level of the Agora of Smyrna (the quarters of Namazgah, Mezarlıkbaşı and İkiçeşmelik), to the seashore along the Konak Square. It remains one of the liveliest parts of İzmir.
The first step that paved the way for the emergence of the present-day Kemeraltı area was the building in 1592 of Hisar Mosque. It is the oldest and one of the most significant Ottoman landmarks in İzmir, although built by Aydınoğlu Yakup Bey, a descendant of the dynasty that had founded the Beylik of the same name (Aydınoğlu) which had controlled İzmir prior to the Ottoman conquest. The name of the mosque, which means "fortress", makes reference to the Genoese castle of "San Pietro", previously called Neon Kastron in Byzantine times, part of which used to stand on the same location and which gradually disappeared in whole with the construction of new buildings on its spot. The final remains of the castle were cleared up during the construction of new port installations between 1867-1876.
This article is about the ancient marketplace; for the currency denomination of Israel see Israeli agora. For other uses, see Agora (disambiguation).
The Agora (pronounced ˈa-gor-rə, with stress on the first syllable) was an open "place of assembly" in ancient Greek city-states. Early in Greek history (900s-700s BCE), free-born male land-owners who were citizens would gather in the agora for military duty or to hear statements of the ruling king or council. Later in Greek history, the agora served as a marketplace where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods amid colonnades.
The word agoraphobia, the fear of critical public situations, derives from agora in its meaning as a gathering place.
Classical Athens boasted a large agora in the heart of the city. Under the Athenian dictators Pisistratus and Hippias, the agora was cleared to a triangular open area of about 600 by 750 yards, bordered with grand public buildings.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating the ancient Athenian agora since 1931. In the 1950s, the Hellenistic Stoa of Attalos was reconstructed on the east side of the agora, and today it serves as a museum and as storage and office space for the excavation team. The agora is a market place where the people of Athens would meet and set up stalls to sell goods.
Izmir Clock Tower
Izmir Clock Tower (Turkish: Izmir Saat Kulesi) is a historic clock tower located at the Konak Square in Konak district of Izmir, Turkey. The clock tower was designed by the Levantine French architect Raymond Charles Père and built in 1901 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Abdul Hamid II's (reigned 1876-1909) accession to the throne.
The clock itself was a gift of German Emperor Wilhelm II (reigned 1888-1918). It is decorated in an elaborate Ottoman architecture. The tower, at a height of 25 m (82 ft), features four fountains, which are placed around the base in a circular pattern, and the columns are inspired by North African themes.